|Implemented in this survey?|
The United States policy regarding stem cell research changed significantly in early 2009. A new Executive Order rescinded earlier policy restricting funding of stem cell research, requested development of new research guidelines by the National Institutes of Health, and affirmed the government’s commitment to scientific inquiry. The National Institutes of Health issued new guidelines that balance ethical concerns with support for sound scientific method.
Under the Bush Administration, federal funding for stem cell research was significantly restricted. A statement by President George W. Bush allowed the National Institutes of Health to fund research using stem cell lines whose derivation was initiated before 9 pm EDT on August 9, 2001, but not research using stem cell lines derived after that date. This statement was supplemented by Executive Order 13435 on June 20, 2007. The restriction limited federally funded researchers to 21 viable stem cell lines. It also limited collaboration and complicated administrative aspects of running and maintaining laboratories. In response to these restrictions most stem cell funding was received from private and state sources. Several legislative attempts to remove this funding restriction were vetoed by President Bush.
President Obama issued Executive Order 13505 on March 9, 2009 to change the way the National Institutes of Health can support and conduct research and to rescind the Bush Administration's restrictive policy. The Executive Order asked the National Institutes of Health to develop new research guidelines under the guidance of strengthening the federal government's commitment to free and open scientific inquiry. The new proposed guidelines issued by the National Institutes of Health attempted to balance ethical concerns with support for sound scientific method. The final guidelines took effect on July 7, 2009.
The guidelines attempt to clarify the separation between privately funded cell-derivation and publicly funded stem cell research and expand funding to research using any stem cell lines created from embryos remaining after fertility procedures and listed in the newly established federal Registry of approved cell lines. In addition, the guidelines require full informed consent from donors of emrybos for use in stem cell research, prevent financial inducements to donate, and require donors to demonstrate they understand that research will not confirm personal benefit. The guidelines also establish an oversight group of scientists and ethicists to review which stem cell lines should be eligible for federal funding based on their derivation. The guidelines continue to prohibit NIH funding of the derivation of stem cells from human embryos, as required by Section 509, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, Pub. L. 111-8, 3/11/09.
|Medienpräsenz||sehr gering||sehr hoch|
This new policy is a substantial lessening of the Bush Administration's limits on federally funded research for stem cell research. The change was highly visible as one of President Obama's first initatives upon taking office. However, the resulting guidelines are fairly consistent with standards in other countries.
|Implemented in this survey?|
The position of the White House changed with the election of President Obama. The positions of other stakeholders are not thought to have changed subsantially since the last policy update in 2007. The scientific and medical communities, as well as the general public, have increasingly supported expanding funding of stem cell research since the institution of the Bush Administration policy in 2001. Conservatives in Congress and some religious organizations continue to oppose expanded funding and guidelines. The widespread support allowed President Obama to issue his Executive Order revoking Bush Administration policy very early in his tenure. NIH subsequently drafted and finalized guidelines for stem cell research based on feedback from the public.
|Obama Administration||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|National Institutes of Health||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Patients||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Patient advocacy groups||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Celebrities||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Academic researchers||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Scientific societies||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Medical organizations||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Liberal religious organizations||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Conservative religious groups||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Private citizens||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Congressional Democrats||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Congressional Republicans||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
With the election of President Obama, the role of the White House as barrier to expanding access to stem cell research and funding changed. After issuing the executive order, the National Institutes of Health drafted guidelines and finalized them based on the 49,000 comments recieved from patient advocacy groups, scientists and scientific societies, academic institutions, medical organizations, religious organizations, members of Congress, and private citizens. The process by which comments are provided on the draft guidelines is designed to be procedurally just, providing all stakeholders an equal opportunity to provide feedback.
|Obama Administration||sehr groß||kein|
|National Institutes of Health||sehr groß||kein|
|Patient advocacy groups||sehr groß||kein|
|Academic researchers||sehr groß||kein|
|Scientific societies||sehr groß||kein|
|Medical organizations||sehr groß||kein|
|Liberal religious organizations||sehr groß||kein|
|Conservative religious groups||sehr groß||kein|
|Private citizens||sehr groß||kein|
|Congressional Democrats||sehr groß||kein|
|Congressional Republicans||sehr groß||kein|
The NIH guidelines became effective on July 7, 2009 after incorporation of public comments on the draft guidelines. In September, the NIH launched a website for researchers to submit information about human embryonic stem cell lines for approval. Members of a Working Group for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Eligibility Review were also announced, and tasked with ensuring that submitted lines meet the new guidelines. Accepted cell lines will be now eligible for use in federally funded research.
With the issuing of Executive Order 13505, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, through the Director of NIH, has been directed to review and update the human stem cell research guidance periodically.
The new NIH guidelines pleased scientists, advocates, and patients. Research opportunities will expand as human embryonic stem cell scientists are able to access federal funding for their work.
|Qualität||kaum Einfluss||starker Einfluss|
|Gerechtigkeit||System weniger gerecht||System gerechter|
|Kosteneffizienz||sehr gering||sehr hoch|
The Executive Order and new NIH guidelines provide the scientific community with greater access to stem cell lines created after 2001.
Krista Harrison and Gerard Anderson