|Implemented in this survey?|
As an outcome of a parliamentary agreement in 2006 a pool of funds was set up, gradually amounting to up to 10 billion DKK a year in 2012. Part of this - 100 million DKK each year - is devoted to the theme of user-driven innovations and is allocated to explorative projects. 26,5 mio DKK were allocated to the field of health care; eight projects eg. dealing with the development of technical devices to assist patients in managing chronic diseases have been initiated but none are completed yet.
The main objective of funds for user-driven innovations is to initiate new ideas which take into account realised and non-realised consumer needs and future needs in the market and which are organised in a way which draws on knowledge and competencies outside the enterprise.
The allocation of funds was 92 million DKK in total in 2007. Out of these approximately 26,5 million DKK were allocated to projects within the field of health care. The following list of projects is illustrative of the scope of activities within health promotion and health care:
In 2008 approximately 57 million DKK were allocated to 20 projects, one of these within the field of health care. The project is named 'Health sector as promoter of commercial development' and it aims at the exchange of ideas and trends from the health care sector to the business community on the basis of exchanging experiences from the area of health promotion and rehabilitation.
Financial support for explorative projects.
Private business, public institutions (including hospitals), consumers (including patients)
|Medienpräsenz||sehr gering||sehr hoch|
The idea of setting up a pool of resources for user-driven innovation is relatively new in Denmark, and the sum of about ½ billion DKK allocated during a five year period is a substantial amount. Anyhow the funds are not earmarked for the health care sector, and it can be seen as just another fund for strategic research to compete for.
The idea of selecting the subject of user-driven innovation is also rather new but follows the international trend. User-driven innovation is a common subject for research and development because it is linked to business opportunities and the possibilites of economic growth.
The Danish government entered into an agreement with the Social Democrats, the Danish-People's Party and the Social-Liberal Party in November 2006 which resulted in a pool of money aiming at promoting entrepreneurship and knowledge in general including so-called user-driven innovation. The pool amounts to 2 billion DKK in 2007 and is to be increased to 10 billion DKK in the year 2012.
Of the funds, 100 million DKK was allocated per year to the subject of user-driven innovation in general including health and health care, but no monies are specifically dedicated to health or health care.
|Implemented in this survey?|
The yearly 100 million DKK granted for the programme user-driven innovation in general is administrated by the Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority under the Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs. The programme aims to contribute to increased growth in the participating companies and increased user contentedness and/or increased efficiency in participating public institutions. The programme is expected to result in the development of new products, services, and concepts. Finally, the programme should increase the qualifications of employees to take part in the innovation processes in the participating companies and public institutions. The programme aims to strengthen user-driven innovation in the private as well as the public sector.
All the programmes are based on a common understanding of the necessesity of integrating user needs and demands in innovative works. User-driven innovation is supposed to work on the basis of systematic and scientific methods with a view to identifying present or future user needs. The basis for this is research on users' life, practice or needs, including the identification on non-realised needs that are expected to subsequent materialise in terms of demand from larger user segments.
The approach of the idea is described as:
amended: Executive Order on project grants under the programme for user-diven innovation. Executive Order no. 241 of 20 March 2007.
At this point of time there is general agreement - also politically - on the purpose and deployment of the fund for user-driven innovation. But as always there is a discussion of the allocation of resources between themes for research and innovation.
No one opposes the theme of user-driven innovation as a theme with great potential for further development.
|Government||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|All kind of health care providers||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Scientific community||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Privatwirtschaft, privater Sektor|
|R&D in private companies||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Social Democrats||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|The Danish-People's Party||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|Social-Liberal Party||sehr unterstützend||stark dagegen|
|All kind of health care providers||sehr groß||kein|
|Scientific community||sehr groß||kein|
|Privatwirtschaft, privater Sektor|
|R&D in private companies||sehr groß||kein|
|Social Democrats||sehr groß||kein|
|The Danish-People's Party||sehr groß||kein|
|Social-Liberal Party||sehr groß||kein|
The main actor is the Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority under the Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs. All applications for funds are to be handled by this authority.
Other actors on the scene are a variety of applicants. Mainly the universities in cooperation with a great number of public institutions and private enterprises.
The number of applications and the amount of resources applied for greatly exceeds the amount allocated.
The programme of user-driven innovation is to be evaluated in 2009 and 2011, but there is no decision yet on how and by whom. The evaluation will be focusing on four criteria of success:
The programme of user-driven innovation has the potential of changing, among other areas, health care services, but the actual results will depend on the invidual projects, the participating companies, public institutions and research institutions. The succes of the programme is very sensitive to how creative and innovative the participants are.
Its not possible to rate the impact of this policy in general because none of the individual projects has been completed yet. The expectation is that at least some of the individual projects have great potential and that they will raise the quality of some health care services, but the degree of innovations in the health care sector also depends on its share of the total fund of up to 500 million DKK a year during the five year period. So far only a fraction of the resources are allocated toward the health care sector, however it amounts to approximately 30 million DKK.
|Qualität||kaum Einfluss||starker Einfluss|
|Gerechtigkeit||System weniger gerecht||System gerechter|
|Kosteneffizienz||sehr gering||sehr hoch|
The expected impact of the user-driven innovation programme very much depends on the individual projects and their successes. If they prove to be innovative there is a potential for higher quality of health care services, but it is to early to evaluate whether it is going to have an impact on equity and cost-efficiency.
Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, www.sdu.dk